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Mediated copying occurs when a UCLA Library staff member does the copying for a requester, either for the requester's convenience or because the material being copied is particularly fragile or rare. When copying unpublished materials, including UCLA theses and dissertations, it is particularly important to determine whether special restrictions on the use of the material apply. For further information, see our page on copying unpublished materials.

Notices of Copyright Regulations

Section 108(a)(3) requires that the reproduction or distribution of a copyrighted work include the notice of copyright that appears on the copy that is reproduced or includes a notice stating that the work may be protected by copyright if no notice of copyright can be found on the material that is reproduced.

  • When a copyright notice appears on the first page of the material being copied (e.g. the first page of a journal article or a book chapter), no additional notification of copyright needs to be provided.
  • When copying a chapter from a monograph in which the chapters do not include a copyright notice, a copy of the copyright notice from the front of the book will be made. If no copyright notice can be found in the book then the first page of the material copied will be stamped with:


This material may be protected by Copyright Law

(Title 17, U.S. Code)

  • When copying a journal article in a journal issue or an article in a volume of separately authored essays in which the article/essay does not include a copyright notice, the first page of the material copied will be stamped with:


This material may be protected by Copyright Law

(Title 17, U.S. Code)

Signs at Service Points

A Warning Concerning Copyright Restrictions sign will be prominently posted at every library location where mediated copying requests are accepted.

Request Forms

To obtain the user's affirmation of his or her awareness of the Copyright Law, UC copyright policies, and his/her intention to comply with these policies, the Warning Concerning Copyright Restrictions will be printed within a box located prominently on the mediated copying request form.

Requests Received via Phone, Email, etc.

Any mediated copying service that wishes to process photocopying requests not submitted on mediated copying request forms (e.g., received by telephone, email or on computer printouts) will obtain the user's affirmation of his/her awareness of the copyright law and UC policy and his/her intention to comply with these policies by means of a registration form prior to processing any copying requests.

The registration form will authorize processing of requests in this manner and will contain the standard notice of copyright regulations. No requests will be accepted under these circumstances unless a user registration form is on file.

Restrictions on the Making of Copies of Published Materials

Entire works: Copying requests for entire works, regardless of format, will be processed only when the work is out-of-print or otherwise unobtainable at a fair price, or when permission to copy has been received from the copyright holder. The requestor must provide evidence of his/her effort to obtain the item at a fair price, or written permission to copy from the copyright holder. Copying requests for entire works must be submitted on standard mediated copying forms.

Multiple copies: Mediated copying services will in most cases only make one copy of copyrighted materials. Multiple copies for classroom use may be made only if the instructor of the course affirms that copying meets the guidelines outlined in UC Policy and Guidelines on the Reproduction of Copyrighted Materials for Teaching and Research.

Requests for reprints from publishers: Requests from reprint publishers to borrow and reproduce materials for further publications should be referred to the Associate University Librarian for Collections and Technical Services.